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Neural Circuitry of Behavioral Flexibility: Dopamine and Related Systems

Neural Circuitry of Behavioral Flexibility: Dopamine and Related Systems PDF Author: Gregory B. Bissonette
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197956
Category : Electronic book
Languages : en
Pages : 167
Book Description
Decades of research have identified a role for dopamine neurotransmission in prefrontal cortical function and flexible cognition. Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission underlies many cases of cognitive dysfunction. New techniques using optogenetics have allowed for ever more precise functional segregation of areas within the prefrontal cortex, which underlie separate cognitive functions. Learning theory predictions have provided a very useful framework for interpreting the neural activity of dopamine neurons, yet even dopamine neurons present a range of responses, from salience to prediction error signaling. The functions of areas like the Lateral Habenula have been recently described, and its role, presumed to be substantial, is largely unknown. Many other neural systems interact with the dopamine system, like cortical GABAergic interneurons, making it critical to understand those systems and their interactions with dopamine in order to fully appreciate dopamine•s role in flexible behavior. Advances in human clinical research, like exome sequencing, are driving experimental hypotheses which will lead to fruitful new research directions, but how do (or should?) these clinical findings inform basic research? Following new information from these techniques, we may begin to develop a fresh understanding of human disease states which will inform novel treatment possibilities. However, we need an operational framework with which to interpret these new findings. Therefore, the purpose of this Research Topic is to integrate what we know of dopamine, the prefrontal cortex and flexible behavior into a clear framework, which will illuminate clear, testable directions for future research.

Neural Circuitry of Behavioral Flexibility: Dopamine and Related Systems

Neural Circuitry of Behavioral Flexibility: Dopamine and Related Systems PDF Author: Gregory B. Bissonette
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197956
Category : Electronic book
Languages : en
Pages : 167
Book Description
Decades of research have identified a role for dopamine neurotransmission in prefrontal cortical function and flexible cognition. Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission underlies many cases of cognitive dysfunction. New techniques using optogenetics have allowed for ever more precise functional segregation of areas within the prefrontal cortex, which underlie separate cognitive functions. Learning theory predictions have provided a very useful framework for interpreting the neural activity of dopamine neurons, yet even dopamine neurons present a range of responses, from salience to prediction error signaling. The functions of areas like the Lateral Habenula have been recently described, and its role, presumed to be substantial, is largely unknown. Many other neural systems interact with the dopamine system, like cortical GABAergic interneurons, making it critical to understand those systems and their interactions with dopamine in order to fully appreciate dopamine•s role in flexible behavior. Advances in human clinical research, like exome sequencing, are driving experimental hypotheses which will lead to fruitful new research directions, but how do (or should?) these clinical findings inform basic research? Following new information from these techniques, we may begin to develop a fresh understanding of human disease states which will inform novel treatment possibilities. However, we need an operational framework with which to interpret these new findings. Therefore, the purpose of this Research Topic is to integrate what we know of dopamine, the prefrontal cortex and flexible behavior into a clear framework, which will illuminate clear, testable directions for future research.

Revisiting Behavioral Variability: What It Reveals About Neural Circuit Structure and Function

Revisiting Behavioral Variability: What It Reveals About Neural Circuit Structure and Function PDF Author: Kenta Asahina
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288976401X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 162
Book Description


Steroids and the Brain

Steroids and the Brain PDF Author: Takayoshi Ubuka
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889638510
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 379
Book Description


Decoding Neural Circuit Structure and Function

Decoding Neural Circuit Structure and Function PDF Author: Arzu Çelik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319573632
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 518
Book Description
This book offers representative examples from fly and mouse models to illustrate the ongoing success of the synergistic, state-of-the-art strategy, focusing on the ways it enhances our understanding of sensory processing. The authors focus on sensory systems (vision, olfaction), which are particularly powerful models for probing the development, connectivity, and function of neural circuits, to answer this question: How do individual nerve cells functionally cooperate to guide behavioral responses? Two genetically tractable species, mice and flies, together significantly further our understanding of these processes. Current efforts focus on integrating knowledge gained from three interrelated fields of research: (1) understanding how the fates of different cell types are specified during development, (2) revealing the synaptic connections between identified cell types (“connectomics”) using high-resolution three-dimensional circuit anatomy, and (3) causal testing of how iden tified circuit elements contribute to visual perception and behavior.

The world according to zebrafish: How neural circuits generate behaviour

The world according to zebrafish: How neural circuits generate behaviour PDF Author: Gonzalo G. De Polavieja
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889193284
Category : Electronic book
Languages : en
Pages : 368
Book Description
Understanding how the brain functions is one of the most ambitious current scientific goals. This challenge will only be accomplish by a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, molecular biology, optics, ethology, neurobiology and mathematics and using tractable model systems. The zebrafish larva is a transparent genetically tractable small vertebrate, ideal for the combination state-of-the- art imaging techniques (e.g. two-photon scanning microscopy, single-plane illumination microscopy, spatial light modulator microscopy and lightfield microscopy), bioluminiscence and optogenetics to monitor and manipulate neuronal activity from single specific neurons up to the entire brain, in an intact behaving organism. Furthermore, the zebrafish model offers large and increasing collection of mutant and transgenic lines modelling human brain diseases. With these advantages in hand, the zebrafish larva became in the recent years, a novel animal model to study neuronal circuits and behaviour, taking us closer than ever before to understand how the brain controls behaviour.

Behavioral Neurobiology of Eating Disorders

Behavioral Neurobiology of Eating Disorders PDF Author: Roger A.H. Adan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642151310
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 322
Book Description
The intention of this book was to have investigators describe an expert opinion on their field of research and cutting-edge work in their laboratory on the neurobiology and treatment of eating disorders.

Neuromodulation of Executive Circuits

Neuromodulation of Executive Circuits PDF Author: M. Victoria Puig
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889197077
Category : Clinical neuropsychology
Languages : en
Pages : 259
Book Description
High-order executive tasks involve the interplay between frontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain regions. In particular, the frontal cortex, striatum and thalamus interact via parallel fronto-striatal "loops" that are crucial for the executive control of behavior. In all of these brain regions, neuromodulatory inputs (e.g. serotonergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, adrenergic, and peptidergic afferents) regulate neuronal activity and synaptic transmission to optimize circuit performance for specific cognitive demands. Indeed, dysregulation of neuromodulatory input to fronto-striatal circuits is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and Parkinson's disease. However, despite decades of intense investigation, how neuromodulators influence the activity of fronto-striatal circuits to generate the precise activity patterns required for sophisticated cognitive tasks remains unknown. In part, this reflects the complexity of the cellular microcircuits in these brain regions (i.e. heterogeneity of neuron subtypes and connectivity), cell-type specific expression patterns for the numerous receptor subtypes mediating neuromodulatory signals, and the potential interaction of multiple signaling cascades in individual neurons. This Research Topic includes 10 original research articles and seven review articles addressing the role of neuromodulation in executive function at multiple levels of analysis, ranging from the activity of single voltage-dependent ion channels to computational models of network interactions in cortex-striatum-thalamus systems.

Essential Pathways and Circuits of Autism Pathogenesis

Essential Pathways and Circuits of Autism Pathogenesis PDF Author: Gül Dölen
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889199053
Category : Genetics
Languages : en
Pages : 183
Book Description
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1 in 68 children in the United states is afflicted with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), yet at this time, there is no cure for the disease. Autism is characterized by delays in the development of many basic skills, most notably the ability to socialize and adapt to novelty. The condition is typically identified in children around 3 years of age, however the high heritability of autism suggests that the disease process begins at conception. The identification of over 500 ASD risk genes, has enabled the molecular genetic dissection of the pathogenesis of the disease in model organisms such as mice. Despite the genetic heterogeneity of ASD etiology, converging evidence suggests that these disparate genetic lesions may result in the disruption of a limited number of key biochemical pathways or circuits. Classification of patients into groups by pathogenic rather than etiological categories, will likely aid future therapeutic development and clinical trials. In this set of papers, we explore the existing evidence supporting this view. Specifically, we focus on biochemical cascades such as mTOR and ERK signaling, the mRNA network bound by FMRP and UBE3A, dorsal and ventral striatal circuits, cerebellar circuits, hypothalamic projections, as well as prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortical circuits. Special attention will be given to studies that demonstrate the necessity and/or sufficiency of genetic disruptions (e.g. by molecular deletion and/or replacement) in these pathways and circuits for producing characteristic behavioral features of autism. Necessarily these papers will be heavily weighted towards basic mechanisms elucidated in animal models, but may also include investigations in patients.

Modulation of Behavioral Outcomes by Conditioning Competing States, Valences, or Responses

Modulation of Behavioral Outcomes by Conditioning Competing States, Valences, or Responses PDF Author: Jacqueline Rose
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2832501389
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 144
Book Description


Dopamine Neuron Diversity in Circuits and Diseases

Dopamine Neuron Diversity in Circuits and Diseases PDF Author: Jean-Francois Poulin
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889747530
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 170
Book Description